The IHR Blog |

Library move under way

by

Reading RoomThe library’s move back to the refurbished north block of Senate House is progressing very nicely, and we’ve said a final goodbye to our temporary south block home, which is now almost completely cleared. So far everything is going to plan (more or less) and the movers have been working hard to get our collections safely into their new locations. We have a great selection of brand new comfy furniture around the library and in the common room, which has a striking new design.

There’s still a lot to be done over the next week, bringing selected material down from closed access in the tower, and back from our offsite store, but everything seems to be running to schedule and we hope to reopen on Monday 1st September as planned.

Again we apologise for any inconvenience caused by the closure period but we’re all really pleased with the library’s new look and facilities, and how much of the collection has returned to open access, and we hope that you will be too!

Essay Prize in London History – deadline approaching!

by

Long view gherkin and tower1A prize of £1,000 will be awarded for the best essay by an early career or doctoral researcher on the history of London, in a new competition sponsored by the Curriers’ Company in association with the IHR and The London Journal.

Essays may be on any aspect of the history of London, from the Romans to the present day, reflect any relevant approach or disciplinary perspective, and can consider London alone or in comparison with other cities.

Essays must be based on original research, and should not have been previously published. The winning essay will normally be published in The London Journal. The deadline for submissions is 31 August.

New reviews: Archbishop Pole, post-war children, scholastic thought and Charles Darwin

by

edwards2First up this week we have Archbishop Pole by John Edwards, as Francis Young and the author discuss a magnificent example of first-rate historical scholarship (no. 1642, with response here).

Next we turn to Lost Freedom: The Landscape of the Child and the British Post-War Settlement by Mathew Thomson. Laura King praises a fascinating, well-researched and insightful contribution to the literature (no. 1641).

Malin Dahlstrom then covers two works on Darwin by distinguished historians of biology, as she reviews Was Hitler a Darwinian? Disputed Questions in the History of Evolutionary Theory by Robert J. Richards and Darwin Deleted: Imagining a World Without Darwin by Peter J. Bowler (no. 1640).

Finally Emily Corran reviews Le désir dicté: Histoire du vœu religieux dans l’Occident médiéval by Alain Boureau, which she finds a learned and significant contribution to the history of scholastic thought and medieval institutions (no. 1639).

New Historical Research article:

by

Bishop_Robert_Grosseteste,_1896_(crop)

Episcopal emotions: tears in the life of the medieval bishop by Katherine Harvey

This article explores the significance of weeping in the lives of late medieval English bishops (c.1100−c.1400). It considers the lachrymose devotions of saintly bishops alongside tears of grief, friendship and self-pity, and asks how such displays of emotion were understood by contemporary onlookers. It is argued that a bishop’s tears were key to perceptions of his masculinity, sexuality and physical body, which in turn had significant implications for his reputation both as a prelate and as a potential saint.

Albert Gallatin’s Library in the IHR collections

by

Gallatin-imageThe IHR library is excited to announce that we have discovered several items in the US collections that once belonged to prominent early American statesman Albert Gallatin (1761-1849). These works came to the library as part of the Conway bequests of the 1920s and 30s and represent a selection of Gallatin’s – much larger – personal library. They provide us with an insight into the type of works owned by Gallatin and may, in at least one instance, cast light on how he acquired some of the books in his collection. Over the next two weeks the IHR and Senate House libraries will post a series of blog entries celebrating items in our collections relating to Gallatin’s political career.  This post will look at Gallatin’s life and the significant role he played in the political and economic debates of the United States during the Antebellum period. It will also briefly introduce one of the sources recently uncovered that bears marks of ownership linking it to Gallatin.

Albert Gallatin and the politics of the early United States

Albert Gallatin was born into a prominent merchant family in Geneva where he spent his childhood and adolescence. Orphaned at an early age, he spent much of his youth as a student in residency at the Geneva Academy where he became enamoured with the philosophy of the French Enlightenment. His enthusiasm for French philosophers, especially Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and the magnetic draw American revolutionary ideology led the young Gallatin to consider sailing for the United States – a place where Enlightenment principles might be put into practice. In 1780, at the age of 19, Gallatin arrived in Boston. The first few years of his life in America were spent in Massachusetts and Maine.  Enticed by the prospect of organizing a new community of French refugees, he later headed south and settled in western Pennsylvania. It was in Pennsylvania that he first became embroiled in the fractious politics of the new nation. In 1790 he won a seat in the state senate before becoming a US senator for Pennsylvania in 1793. In the Federal Senate, Gallatin aligned himself with the Jeffersonian Republicans in opposition to the financial policies of the first Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton and, as a result, soon fell out of favour with the Federalist majority in the chamber. He became an early causality of the Federalist campaign  to marginalize foreign-born Republican supporters (culminating in the passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798) after his congressional opponents eventually managed to unseat him on the basis that he did not meet the residency requirements to qualify for admission into the Senate. He was later elected to the House of Representatives for Pennsylvania’s 12th district, an office he occupied from 1795 to 1801. Gallatin was instrumental in negotiating the peaceful resolution of the Whiskey Rebellion, a protest movement in western Pennsylvania spurred by Hamilton’s tax on distilled liquor. Though he abhorred the secessionist rhetoric and violent tactics of many of the rebels, he sympathized with their core position regarding federal tax policy. As a resident of the western counties with a track record of opposition to the Federalist bloc in congress, Gallatin was able to earn the trust of many of the movement’s leaders and helped to convince them to stand down before the arrival of Federal troops.

He became the Republican party leader in the House and was a leading critic of the Adams administration and the national debt. Following the spectacular electoral victory of Thomas Jefferson and his Republican allies in 1800 (the so-called ‘Revolution of 1800’) Gallatin was appointed the fourth Secretary of the Treasury. He stayed in this office during the Jefferson and Madison administrations, leaving office in 1813/14. Though he had initially opposed Hamilton’s plans for a national bank, the need to adequately fund the army during the War of 1812 convinced Gallatin of its necessity. Accordingly, he departed from the position held by many in his party and helped charter the Second Bank of the United States in 1816. He then spent most of the subsequent decade abroad, first as the US Minister to France (1816-1823) and then to Britain (1826-27). Upon returning to the United States, Gallatin settled in Astoria, New York, where he spent the last twenty years of his life.

Throughout his career Gallatin pursued projects to promote learning and the Arts in his adopted country. He first developed an interest in the ecology and geography of North America as well as Native American culture while studying at the Geneva Academy. He maintained an interest in these subjects throughout his career in the United States. In 1803 and 1804, he helped plan the Lewis and Clark expedition to the lands acquired by the United States as a result of the Louisiana Purchase. During his New York years, after he had retired from political office, Gallatin became involved in several civic and national improvement campaigns. In 1831 he backed efforts to found a university for New York’s growing commercial classes. The result was the establishment of New York University. Gallatin also became the President of the American Ethnological and New York Historical Societies. He published two works on Native American culture: A Table of Indian Languages of the United States (1826) and Synopsis of the Indian Tribes of North America (New York, 1836). Finally, he continued to write pamphlets and deliver speeches on national economic and political issues, many of them having to do with the western expansion of the United States (for example, he published a pamphlet on the peace with Mexico in 1848).

For more information on the life and works of Albert Gallatin, consult the following works in the IHR and Senate House libraries:

The IHR:

Senate House Library:

The Laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1793)

Gallatin's signature on the front flyleaf of 'The Laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania' (Philadelphia, 1793)

Gallatin’s signature on the front flyleaf of ‘The Laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania’ (Philadelphia, 1793).

The IHR library holds many items containing provenance suggesting that they were owned by Albert Gallatin. The majority of these items are presentation copies of pamphlets and books bearing manuscript inscriptions and messages directed to Gallatin (we will be looking at a few of these items in future blog posts). Within one volume, however, we discovered direct evidence that established that the item was once owned by Albert Gallatin. In this case the provenance was very clear: Gallatin’s signature on the front flyleaf of the 2nd volume of a 1793 edition of The Laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The Laws was printed in Philadelphia while Gallatin was serving his short term in the Senate as a representative for Pennsylvania. In our next blog we will examine in detail a collection of pamphlets held in the IHR collection, once owned by Gallatin, that focuses on an issue that remained close to his heart during his career in America: the Northeastern Boundary Dispute (1783-1842).

New reviews: Edward I, empire and race, Weimar and polio

by

spencerOff to Edinburgh this weekend, just as things are hotting up in the independence campaign. However, as all those who know him will vouch, your deputy editor shies away from political controversy at all times, and my visit is solely a cultural one to take in a little bit of the Festival. Any tips on what to see and what to avoid would be much appreciated…

Anyhow. First up this week we have Nobility and Kingship in Medieval England: The Earls and Edward I, 1272-1307 by Andrew Spencer. James Bothwell and the author discuss a well-crafted and thoughtful book offering a balanced new interpretation (no. 1638, with response here).

Then we turn to A Problem of Great Importance: Population, Race, and Power by Karl Ittmann, as Scott Spencer reviews a fine book on the ins and outs of policy formation (no. 1637).

Next up is Anthony McElligott’s Rethinking the Weimar Republic: Authority and Authoritarianism, 1916-1936, which Colin Storer recommends as being an excellent and insightful book that challenges the reader to look anew at a familiar subject (no. 1636).

Lastly there is Paralysed with Fear: the Story of Polio by Gareth Williams, which Wendy Gagen praises as a book which gives an insight into the reality of medical research (no. 1635).

Oh, and we also have the bonus of an additional response, from Matthew Hendley to the review of his book Organized Patriotism and the Crucible of War: Popular Imperialism in Britain, 1914-1932 (no. 1623, with response here).

Using Connected Histories to explore the British interpretation of Abraham Lincoln

by

486px-Abraham_Lincoln_November_1863This post was kindly written for us by IHR Digital intern Beth Page.

As a History and American studies student, I thought it would be interesting to use Connected Histories to explore the British interpretation of Abraham Lincoln. I decided to look for sources that cover three areas that most people associated him with: the Union’s role in the American Civil War, the emancipation of the slaves and his assassination in 1865.

Because Connected Histories comprises a collection of British sources, I didn’t expect there to be a huge number of matches. To make sure the results were as relevant as they could be, I added a date filter – 1859 (the advent of the Civil War) to 1877 (the end of Reconstruction). There were 1,911 matches across 4 resources, 1,816 of these being under British Newspapers. This is not surprising given both Lincoln’s global status and the relatively low level of political interaction between the US and Britain during his years as President, suggesting there would not be too many parliamentary papers referring to him (there were only 29).

One of the most useful sources that I came across are those from Punch magazine, well known for its satire. This meant I was guaranteed a more scathing view of Lincoln, one that perhaps represented an educated, more radical opinion. Unfortunately, the website Science in the Nineteenth-Century Periodical in which the Punch index can be found doesn’t display the articles or illustrations, only a sentence summary. This means wider research is needed, although it is helpful to have a base from which to start searching. Interestingly, one of the results is a picture entitled ‘Britannia Sympathises with Columbia’, a sympathetic title in comparison to their other publications. This was published in May, 1865 alongside a poem that seems to apologize for the way Punch represented Lincoln in the time he was alive. It is an important source as it helps to differentiate the political view of Lincoln from the personal view, clearly two very distinct things.

Although my search returned a large selection of newspaper results, some of them are inaccessible due to the scanning process that leaves the article more or less illegible. Nonetheless the British Newspaper’s website does have a large selection of national and local newspaper archives allowing me to see if opinions differ based on locale.  The general opinion seems to be a national mixture of support and criticism of Lincoln’s wartime policy and unsurprisingly, sympathy regarding his assassination.

Connected Histories provides a wonderful base for me to start my research although I don’t feel it has enough resources to reach a firm conclusion, but this may partly be due to do my choice of topic rather than the website. Yet the concept of using connections to save sources found as well as being able to browse other people’s connections helps to make this website a unique and valuable resource for anyone researching British history.

IHR Friends Summer Outing: Kenwood House

by

This post was written for us by Kelly Spring, one of our Friends committee members

Peter-Jeffree-architectural-photographer-Kenwood-House-Orangery

Kenwood House

This year’s annual IHR Friends summer outing took us to Kenwood House in Hampstead Heath on 8 July. Closed in 2012 for renovation and conservation of its interior and exterior, the house was reopened to the public in late 2013. Many of the Friends at the outing had previously visited the house, but were eager to see the refurbishments. Others, who had not been there before, took the outing as their opportunity to visit the house.

IHRFriends

IHR Friends

Prior to the tour, Friends met for tea on the terrace adjoining Kenwood House. We then convened in the entrance hall of the house to meet our tour leader. Our guide provided a wide range of information, covering the history of the house, giving details of its furnishings, and discussing the paintings in the rooms.

Dido Elizabeth Belle

Dido Elizabeth Belle

Among the owners was William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, who bought the house in 1754. As Lord Chief Justice, Murray is noted for ruling that slavery was illegal in Britain. His half African great-niece, Dido Elizabeth Belle, was recently made cinematically famous with the 2014 release of the film ‘Belle’ which details her life at Kenwood.

Painting by  William Larkin (1613), Richard Sackville, 3rd Earl of Dorset

Painting by
William Larkin (1613),
Richard Sackville, 3rd Earl of Dorset

Another important resident was Edward Guinness, 1st Earl of Iveagh, whose collection of paintings adorns the walls of Kenwood House.

Paintings that are of particular note include: a self-portrait of Rembrandt (c. 1665), ‘The Guitar Player’ by Vermeer (c. 1672), and ‘Old London Bridge’ by de Jough (c. 1630). Our guide also highlighted the newly installed portraits on the 1st floor of the house by William Larkin which depict members of the court of James I. Although the tour was to last for one hour, it stretched to an hour and a half so that we could take in this special collection of portraits.

Following the extended tour of the house, many of the Friends stayed on to have lunch and discuss the restorations to Kenwood.

Professor Sir  David Cannadine

Professor Sir
David Cannadine

More exciting Friends events are planned in the autumn as the Institute returns to its home in the North Block of Senate House. The Annual General Meeting of the Friends will take place on 27 October and will be followed by the Annual Friends Lecture delivered by Professor Sir David Cannadine, former Director of the Institute of Historical Research.

Also planned for this upcoming academic year is a musical evening with the medieval performance group, The Cardinals and the annual film night. Check back at the IHR website for updates on these future events. http://www.history.ac.uk/support-us/get-involved/events

New Historical Research article

by

1926-frigidaire-electric-fridge

Susan Freidberg’s Anglo-American paper on ‘Moral ecomonies and the cold chain’ now published online.

 

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the spread of what we now know as the cold chain sparked controversy in both Europe and North America. This article examines popular distrust of early refrigerated transport and storage in light of larger debates about how best to procure good food at a fair price. Expanding on E. P. Thompson’s concept of moral economy, the article shows that refrigeration proved controversial not simply because it helped de-localize and industrialize food supply. It also challenged norms that had previously governed trade in perishables, especially those concerning transparency, naturalness and freshness.

Preparations for the library move

by

booksWe are beginning to move books and finalise shelving layouts  in preparation for the move. Some books which have been on open access need to be temporarily moved into closed access to be shelved in sequence. This particularly affects books at B.0 (British bibliography), place names series and folios. They can still be requested if required, and will be returning to open access after the move. Please check the catalogue for details of specific items.

The fetch service and staffing of the enquiry office may also be disrupted during the next 2 weeks. We will guarantee a fetch at 9am and 2pm, but other times (11am and 4.30pm) may be affected, and you are advised to check with library or reception staff if a request is urgent (020 7862 8760/8740).

The library will close completely from Saturday 16th August to Saturday 30th August inclusive. We hope to reopen in the north block on Monday 1st September but please check the IHR website and blog for updates nearer the time..

We apologise for the disruption caused during this period, but we have attempted to keep the closure period to a minimum. We’re looking forward to welcoming you to the refurbished IHR complete with the much missed common room!

< Older Posts