Our intern Paris Jones has kindly written the following post for us:
Since my sophomore year as an undergraduate, the subject of witchcraft had always fascinated me. My final undergraduate research paper was on witchcraft in the Elizabethan Era. I decided to continue my research on witchcraft into my graduate studies. To this day, I still don’t understand why the history of witchcraft amazes me. It might be because of the stories of accusations, examinations, the psychological approach or the fantasy that a community created. For my MA dissertation, I plan to research about witchcraft during slavery. First, I want to make a connection between witchcraft in Europe and among slaves in the Americas. My research consists of a study of how witchcraft beliefs during the 16th and 17th century transferred to slaves of African descent.
The document type which occurred most frequently was ‘Newspapers’, with the second most common being ‘Books, pamphlets and printed ephemera’. The newspapers were mostly from the British Newspapers 1600–1900 database. Most of the books and pamphlets could be found on other databases such as Witches in Early Modern England; a great resource that I’ve used for research papers. This resource provides different accounts of witch examination and accusations. [http://www.connectedhistories.org/Search_results.aspx?dtf=1500-01-01&dtt=1899-12-31&kw=witchcraft&sr=wi] This doesn’t surprise me because most witch prosecutions and trials were printed in pamphlets. The dates range from the 16th century to the 19th century. However, it was interesting to find that there are more resources in the 18th and the 19th centuries. In the late 17th century, there was a decline in witchcraft prosecutions and trials since there were new judiciary rules in place after the English Civil War. Maybe I should research farther to find out why there was a large portion of witchcraft pamphlets still being publishing in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. Connected Histories is a very useful site for resources, and someone had already created connections for witchcraft: [http://www.connectedhistories.org/connection.aspx?c=144]. It’s helpful and provides images from the British Museum website.
One of our summer interns from Leicester University, Charlotte Ward, writes in a guest post:
For my BA dissertation I am looking at ‘Crime and Punishment in the British Navy and Army during the wars with France from 1793-1815’ so I decided that I would create a connection that was linked to this topic. As this was my first connection I thought it would be a good idea to research a well-known person as this would probably mean that it would produce more results. I decided to choose Horatio Nelson, the famous admiral who led Britain to victory at sea with battles that included the Nile, Copenhagen and Trafalgar. For my initial search I typed ‘Horatio Nelson’ into the person bar and set the years to 1793-1815, the years of my dissertation topic. Even though Nelson died in 1805 at the Battle of Trafalgar I thought that there might be a fair amount about his legacy including documents, images, memorials etc that were made after his death. This search produced 227 matches across three databases. 209 of these matches came from the British Museum Image Collection Database where, as I previously stated, many of these images are from after he died to commemorate his life and achievements.
As Nelson’s exploits during the Napoleonic Wars are famous and well known, I thought it would be interesting to see if anything from earlier on in his naval career or indeed in his life would come up in a search. So I tried a new search and changed the dates to encompass the entirety of his life (1758-1805). This produced 135 matches across four databases. One match I found particularly interesting, seeing as I am researching an area of crime and punishment, was from the Proceedings of the Old Bailey Online. Captain Nelson had been a character witness at the trial of a man called James Carse who had been accused, and was found guilty of, the murder of a woman. Nelson describes the man as being ‘melancholy’ and ‘quiet’ and believes that because he was not a drunkard or used to drinking so he believed that as the man had been drinking that night he was probably not used to the effects of the alcohol and that this might be to blame. Nelson also makes a very salient point about the nature of crime in the navy stating that ‘it seldom happens that any man can serve four years without being guilty of some sort of offence’ which is something I will consider in my dissertation. Also, rather interestingly, one of the lawyers was William Garrow someone else whose life and exploits I am especially interested in.
Connected Histories is a fantastic resource. I have discovered things I may not have thought to look at and probably would not have come across. It is great to be able to save things that you find in an easy to access list as I often find that when I am researching things online I often have too many tabs open or I lose and forget certain pages I have visited. Although many of the databases are not free to use (though thankfully like many universities mine is signed up to all of them) it does allow you to see the sheer volume there could potentially be on a certain topic, person or place. Those that are free to use make for fascinating reading and provide a glimpse into online historical collections.
This is a guest post by Kathryn Hemingway, one of IHR Digital’s summer interns from the University of Leicester.
In attempting to create my first connection on Connected Histories, I chose the topic of the Stamp Act Crisis of 1765. It was my intention to choose a specific subject matter so that the resultant connection would not appear as a very long, insurmountable list of sources. I found that a search for “stamp act crisis” threw up a total of 57,871 matches across 10 resources. Deciding that was quite broad, I thought of narrowing it down further by creating several different connections relating to the Stamp Act – examples being the roles played by individuals during the crisis, with titles such as ‘The Stamp Act and George Grenville’ or ‘The Stamp Act and William Pitt’. Another idea would be to relate the subject to particular places, such as Massachusetts or New York. However, given that I had to undertake the work on my connection on the final day of my internship I opted to create a single connection rather than a series. Thinking along the lines of the reactions of certain provinces to the Stamp Act, a connection listing sources related to the history of the ‘Sons of Liberty’ came to mind. I conducted a search for “sons of liberty” specifying a date range of 1765 to 1776 which produced a more manageable 216 matches from 5 resources (though I also came across related sources outside of the date range through other searches, which appeared useful). Choosing this range is an attempt to generally cover the period in which they were a formal organisation. It is possible that people opposed to the same parliamentary acts but not officially affiliated with them were also referred to as ‘Sons of Liberty’.
Sifting through the results, I sought out the most relevant, useful and accessible sources while also trying to utilise a variety of websites. Most were obtained from the 17th and 18th century Burney Collection newspapers. The only difficulties I encountered with this particular resource were the repetition of some sources and occasional indecipherable transcriptions in the result descriptions. Although many of the sources in the connection require subscription, it does contain some interesting images from the British Museum and material from British History Online, both of which can be accessed for free.
It’s bitterly cold in most of the UK at the moment, with overnight temperatures lower than -10° C in some areas. However, there’s no prospect of the Thames freezing over just yet. A search of Connected Histories reveals that this was a not uncommon occurrence in earlier periods (“Thames” AND “frozen” produces 142,593 results). When it happened, it inevitably captured the attention of artists and engravers. There are 1,700 relevant images in the British Museum image database, for example. A wonderfully detailed woodcut from 1683-4, entitled ‘Wonders on the Deep; Or, The Most Exact Description of the Frozen Thames’ shows the frozen surface teeming with life, with market stalls, and boats converted into sleds. These are the events of the ‘last great Frost, which began about the middle of December, 1683, and ended on the 8th of February following’. A woodcut depicting the frost fair of 1814 reveals a similarly busy scene, with fires and cooking pots on the ice visible in the foreground. However, the situation is rather more precarious than in the earlier example – the ice is clearly beginning to break up, and one figure is shown falling through up to his waist in freezing water. A drawing of the great frost of 1789 shows an almost Antarctic prospect, with large ships trapped and anchors lying on top of jagged and broken ice.
Other sources, too, are rich in detail. A coroner’s inquest from 1795, for example, indicates what might happen when the weather wasn’t quite cold enough:
James Edwards on the eighteenth day of February in the year aforesaid at the Parish and in the Liberty aforesaid [St. George Hanover Square, Liberty of the Dean and Chapter of the Collegiate Church of St. Peter, Westminster] To Wit on the certain piece of Water called the Serpentine in Hyde park (then being frozen) being then and there scating It so happened that accidentally casually and by Misfortune the Ice gave Way & that he the said James Edwards fell into the Water and in the said Water was then and there suffocated and drowned: Of which said suffocation and Drowning he the said James Edwards then and there instantly died
And it was not just in England that such severe weather conditions prevailed. A ‘Report on Tables of Deaths’ in the 1851 census of Ireland has multiple entries relating to extreme cold:
AD 1739-40 A great snow and frost in England. Great snow in Spain and Portugal. The Zooder Zee was frozen over. The frost was common to all Europe …
1766 “A frosty spring.” The greatest fall of snow ever remembered: in some places it was more than fifteen feet deep; numbers of sheep and several travellers were lost [in that order!]. It was common to England.
1783-4 The Liffey, Thames and also all the rivers in the interior of Holland were “covered with solid ice.”
Unsurprisingly, the term ‘Christmas’ appears frequently in the resources indexed by Connected Histories – 58,644 times to be precise. The search results include a significant numbers of people with the surname Christmas, from the Leicestershire vicar Henricus Christmas to the wonderfully named Priscilla Swift Christmas, who was unable to say precisely much money had been stolen from her in 1847. The vast majority of entries, however, are of course references to the festival itself. There are, for example, some lovely images in both the British Museum Image Database and the John Johnson Collection of Printed Ephemera. Among those in the BM collection is a boisterous 19th-century Father Christmas presiding over a plum pudding which doesn’t seem unduly worried about its imminent demise. Quite what the sinister ‘bogie’ figure is doing towards the back of the image is another story. The illustrator Hablot Knight Browne is better known as ‘Phiz’, whose drawings accompanied so many of Dickens’s works. In contrast, this Madonna and Child with Gallows, a woodcut by Eric Gill (1916), is starkly beautiful, undercutting the joy of the birth with a hint of what’s to come. There are many other Gill illustrations in the collection, most designed for the book ‘Adeste Fideles, a Christmas Hymn’. Much more ‘traditional’ is this 1874 design for a Christmas card by Walter Crane, with its bright colours, children and holly.
The Proceedings of the Old Bailey include a number of Christmas-related thefts, for example Charles Henry Thwaites was sentenced to eighteen months’ hard labour after pleading guilty to ‘stealing, whilst employed under the Post Office, a post letter containing a hat-pin, the property of the Postmaster-General. Also, a post letter containing a silk handkerchief and a Christmas card. Also to stealing a letter containing a pocket Bible, the property of the Postmaster-General’. Similarly, one John Shepherd was stopped by a watchman at 1.45 am on Christmas morning, with ’7 lbs. weight of lead pipe, value 1s.; 1 brass cock, value 10d., and 1 screw-plate, with taps, value 6s.’ under his coat. Pleading poverty, he was recommended to mercy and imprisoned for only six weeks. Some things didn’t stop even for Christmas!
You can now cross-search the Proceedings of the Old Bailey Online and the Convict Transportation Registers Database via Connected Histories, tracing the fate of individuals from arrest to arrival in Australia. One such was the 17-year-old John Kail, indicted on 12 May 1833 for the theft of a 2s handkerchief belonging to the auctioneer George Mence Boyes. In his defence, Kail claimed ‘I was coming along Fenchurch-street, two more boys were behind the prosecutor; I was passing him and the handkerchief fell, I went to pick it up, Mr. Boyes turned round and said it was in my hand, but it was on the ground; he said he had transported one before, and would transport me for life’. Kail wasn’t believed and was sentenced to transportation for life. The convict transportation registers reveal that he was one of 260 individuals transported on the John on 3 August 1833, destined for Van Diemen’s Land (modern day Tasmania) (Connected Histories search at http://www.connectedhistories.org/Search_results.aspx?rsf=kail&sr=cr%2cob). Alongside him were Francis and Charles Wiltshire, similarly indicted for the theft of a handkerchief, worth 3s from one John Schmidt. It was noted that Charles Wiltshire had been convicted of felony before. Aged 12 and 13 respectively, they were both sentenced to transportation for a period of seven years.
Although not part of Connected Histories, you can find further information at the conviz website, which aims to bring the convict transportation registers to life through visualisation. A record for John Kail, for example, exists at http://conviz.info/convicts/252127/kail-john. From here, you can see the start and end point of his journey, and find out information about others convicted in 1833 or sent to Van Diemen’s Land. You can also see a list of all those transported on the ship John (1,295 in total over several years). The Wiltshires are also there, but the poignancy of their case is only fully revealed by linking the Old Bailey material and the registers through Connected Histories.
A search of Connected Histories for the word ‘Halloween’ produces only 13 results for the whole period 1500-1900. Similarly there are only 15 mentions of ‘All Hallows Eve” – with all of these simply referring to it as a date (for example in an almanac). The first entry, from the British Museum image database, is a rather lovely printed broadside from 1830 which reproduces Robert Burns’s poem ‘Halloween’. The subtitle notes: ‘[Halloween] thought to be a night when witches, devils, and other mischief-making beings, are all abroad on their baneful midnight errands; particularly those aerial people, the Faires [sic], are said on that night, to hold a grand anniversary’. The accompanying woodcut shows revellers gathered round a roaring fire. The Scottish theme continues with the Old Bailey Online, when a witness in a murder trial attested to his certainty about the date on which he saw one of the defendants: ‘I know it because it was Halloween in Scotland’.
The entry from the John Johnson Collection of Printed Ephemera is a prospectus for a newly published book, The Cabinet of Modern Art and Literary Souvenir, ed. A. A. Watts (1835). Among the illustrations listed, but sadly not shown, is one simply entitled ‘Halloween’. The remaining 10 search results are all derived from the House of Commons Parliamentary Papers. Several simply refer to Halloween as a date on which rents or other payments were due, while one is in fact talking about ‘the Halloween Arabs – a sub-tribe of the Rufaa [Egypt]‘. Several, however, are of more relevance. Two annual reports of the General Board of Commissioners in Lunacy for Scotland (from 1867 and 1871 respectively) note the festival being marked in asylums: ‘in winter there are seldom fewer than two public in-door amusements weekly, and at these strangers are always present while at the more important festivities; such as Halloween, harvest-home, Christmas, etc., provision is invariably made for 50 guests’. The same is found to be true for ‘lunatic asylums’ in Ireland. The most unexpected result is from the resignation letter of Sir Peregrine Maitland as Commander-in-Chief at Madras. In a discussion of celebrations at festivals in India, he remarks ‘Something of paganism may be traced in our English feasts of May-day and harvest home; something Druidical in the rites of Halloween; more that is catholic in the village mummeries of Christmas’. And that, rather surprisingly, is that!
Image: Snap-Apple Night, painted by Irish artist Daniel Maclise in 1833. It was inspired by a Halloween party he attended in Blarney, Ireland, in 1832 (Wikimedia Commons)
Intriguingly, a search of Connected Histories reveals only 34 references to the term ‘Indian summer’ (and that from an estimated 5.6 billion words and 140,000 images relating to British history from 1500 to 1900). The reference in the Old Bailey Online is simply to a summer in India, and this may also be the case for the single reference in the John Johnson Collection of Printed Ephemera (the title of a short story in a Table of Contents). The other 32 references are contained in the House of Commons Parliamentary Papers.
It is often mistakenly believed, in the UK at least, that the term refers to the Indian subcontinent, but the ‘Indian’ in question is in fact Native American. The first reference in the Parliamentary Papers (drawn from ‘Reports of progress, together with a preliminary and general report, on the Assinniboine and Saskatchewan exploring expedition’ (1860)) yields the following rather lyrical explanation:
Indian summer is a phenomenon of constant yearly occurrence and marked characteristics in the north-west … the hazy, warm, mellow weather we term Indian summer is a periodical phenomenon in Canada, but the cause does not appear to be quite understood. The characteristics of Indian summer are more decided in the north-west than in the neighbourhood of Lake Ontario. Sounds are distinctly audible at great distances; objects are difficult to discern unless close at hand; the weather is warm and oppressive, the atmosphere hazy and calm, and every object appears to wear a tranquil and drowsy aspect.
This is followed by a table providing data for the incidence of Indian summer in Toronto from 1840 to 1859 inclusive – it apparently lasted for between four and 11 days each year.
Closer investigation reveals that only 13 of the references in the Parliamentary Papers (five from this one report) are directly relevant, and I’ve saved them as a ‘Connection’ here. The short descriptions are evocative of British officials and explorers enjoying welcome relief from extremes of temperature (in both summer and winter) to which they would have been unused:
… mornings are pleasant but cool, and a fire becomes agreeable. This period is termed all over America, the “Indian summer,” and is always looked for, and depended on, as the time to make preparations for the winter season.
The summer heats for a brief season are excessive, vegetation is singularly rapid, and the autumn, which includes the Indian summer, is delightful.
Cold, bleak, misty days followed till the 18th, when the balmy enjoyable weather known as the Indian Summer commenced, and continued till the close of the month …
The first reference to ‘Indian summer’ provided by the OED online dates from 1794 (Ebenezer Denny, Military Journal of Major Ebenezer Denny, an officer in the Revolutionary and Indian Wars. With an introductory memoir. By William H. Denny (1860)), so it is surprising not to see it occur more frequently in Connected Histories. The fact that it deals solely with British rather than American source material is clearly a factor.The Google Books ngram viewer suggests a slightly different picture. There is relatively high incidence of the term in the period 1800-20 (although at least some of these may well refer to summer in India, as noted above) and smaller peaks at intervals throughout the 19th century. However, even here it’s not until the 1970s and 80s that things really take off. Today, ‘Indian summer’ is a staple of newspaper headlines and television weather reports, and will be used many more times before the end of this balmy week in the UK.
(Image: Jasper Cropsey, Indian Summer (1886). Smithsonian American Art Museum, via Wikimedia Commons)
On a very blustery September day, a search of Connected Histories for the word ‘storm’ produces 36,190 results, including this from Strype’s Survey of London: ‘in the year 1574. on the fourth of September in the Afternoon, there fell a Storm of Rain, where through the Chanels suddenly arose, and ran with such a swift Course towards the common Shores, that a Lad of 18 years old, minding to have leapt over the Chanel, near unto the said Conduit, was taken with the Stream, and carried from thence towards the Thames with such a Violence, that no Man, with Staves, or otherwise, could stay him, till he came against a Cart Wheel that stood in the said Water-gate, before which time he was drowned, and stark dead’ (http://www.hrionline.ac.uk/strype/TransformServlet?page=book2_201). Of course, not all of the results are related to the weather, or indeed as tragic. The first for the Old Bailey Proceedings Online, for example, concerns an assault committed by the dramatically named Charles Edward Storm. You can explore further at http://www.connectedhistories.org/Search_results.aspx?kw=storm.
IHR Digital has a growing collection of papers in SAS-Space, the e-repository for the School of Advanced Study. It includes papers relating to projects such as the recently launched Connected Histories, as well as British History Online and the Bibliography of British and Irish History. Topics include sustainability, assessing impact, the future of peer review, and building tools for collaborative editing. View them all in SAS-Space, or click on the handy feed of most recent items in the left-hand column of this blog.