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Albert Gallatin and the politics of the early United States

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This documents the exhibition held at Senate House Library 1 Oct – 27 November 2015 with items from Senate House Library and the Institute of Historical Research collections. The exhibition was curated by Benjamin Bankhurst, Postdoctoral Fellow in North American History at the School of Advanced Study 2014-2015 with assistance from Mura Ghosh and the conservation team at Senate House Library.

Front leaf from Laws of the Commonwealth of PennsylvaniaRepublished by Alexander James Dallas, Philadelphia: Hall and Sellers, 1793 Vol. 2.

Several items in the US collections once belonged to prominent early American statesman Albert Gallatin (1761-1849). These works came to the libraries as part of the Conway bequests of the 1920s and 30s and represent a selection of Gallatin’s – much larger – personal library. This small exhibition celebrates items in our collections relating to Gallatin’s political career. Gallatin played a significant role in the political and economic debates of the United States during the Antebellum period.

 


Introduction

Gallatin portrait

From The life of Albert Gallatin Henry Adams Philadelphia; London: J.B. Lippincott & Co, 1879 – SHL

Albert Gallatin was born into a prominent merchant family in Geneva where he spent his childhood and adolescence. Orphaned at an early age, he spent much of his youth as a student in residency at the Geneva Academy. His enthusiasm for French philosophers, especially Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and the magnetic draw American revolutionary ideology led the young Gallatin to consider sailing for the United States. In 1780, at the age of 19, Gallatin arrived in Boston and later settled in western Pennsylvania.

It was in Pennsylvania that he first became embroiled in the fractious politics of the new nation. In 1790 he won a seat in the state senate before becoming a US senator for Pennsylvania in 1793. He was later elected to the House of Representatives for Pennsylvania’s 12th district, an office he occupied from 1795 to 1801. Gallatin was instrumental in negotiating the peaceful resolution of the Whiskey Rebellion, a protest movement in western Pennsylvania. As a resident of the western counties with a track record of opposition to the Federalist bloc in congress, Gallatin and helped to convince many of the movement’s leaders to stand down before the arrival of Federal troops.

He became the Republican party leader in the House and was a leading critic of the Adams administration and the national debt. Following the spectacular electoral victory of Thomas Jefferson and his Republican allies in 1800, Gallatin was appointed the fourth Secretary of the Treasury. In 1816 he helped charter the Second Bank of the United States. He then spent most of the subsequent decade abroad, first as the US Minister to France (1816-1823) and then to Britain (1826-27). Upon returning to the United States, Gallatin spent the last twenty years of his life in Astoria, New York.

Throughout his career Gallatin pursued projects to promote learning and the Arts in his adopted country. He first developed an interest in the ecology and geography of North America as well as Native American culture while studying at the Geneva Academy. He maintained an interest in these subjects throughout his career in the United States. In 1803 and 1804, he helped plan the Lewis and Clark expedition to the lands acquired by the United States as a result of the Louisiana Purchase. During his New York years, after he had retired from political office, Gallatin became involved in several civic and national improvement campaigns. In 1831 he backed efforts to found a university for New York’s growing commercial classes. The result was the establishment of New York University. Gallatin also became the President of the American Ethnological and New York Historical Societies. He published two works on Native American culture: A Table of Indian Languages of the United States (1826) and Synopsis of the Indian Tribes of North America (New York, 1836). Finally, he continued to write pamphlets and deliver speeches on national economic and political issues, many of them having to do with the western expansion of the United States (for example, he published a pamphlet on the peace with Mexico in 1848).

 


The United States and the French Republic, 1794-1800

General Report of such vessels of the United States as have been taken... by the French, 1796, bound with other pamplets in: ‘Reports Etc., 1 Session, 7 Congress – 1801-2’ (vol. 1)

General Report of such vessels of the United States as have been taken… by the French, 1796, bound with other pamplets in: ‘Reports Etc., 1 Session, 7 Congress – 1801-2’ (vol. 1) – IHR

The French Republic, suspicious of America’s policy of neutrality during the wars between Britain and France following the signing of the Jay Treaty, begun to attack American shipping in the Atlantic. This official report was published by the government of the United States and shows where US ships were captured, where they were taken, and what happened to them. The foreign policy pursued by the John Adams Administration was central to partisan political atmosphere of the late 1790s.

 

 

 

The relationship between the French Republic and the United States deteriorated throughout the late 1790s. In 1794, the US and British governments signed the Jay Treaty, an action that undermined the proclaimed neutrality of The United States in the ongoing conflict between Britain in France. In 1796, the French Republic refused to receive American envoys unless they were willing to pay bribes. When this was revealed to the American public during the “XYZ Affair”, a firestorm of anti-French sentiment swept the nation, temporarily increasing support for the Federalist Administration of John Adams. Gallatin, and other immigrants were singled-out as foreign sympathisers during this period. This pamphlet outlines the instructions of the American envoys that were originally sent to negotiate with the French Republic.

 

 

 


Politics and the New Nation

federalist

The federalist: a collection of essays New-York: printed and sold by J. and A. McLean, 1788 Porteus Library RDb/Ham – SHL

In March and April 1788, New York publisher J. & A. MacLean, published the first bound collection of the Federalist papers. The two volumes held in Special Collections at Senate House Library were published by the MacLeans and date from the period of the ratification debate. Albert Gallatin sided with the Anti-Federalists during the ratification debate. Like many in the Anti-Federalist camp, he argued that the document did not provide adequate safeguards for the preservation of liberty. Many of his concerns would be addressed with the passing of the first ten amendments to the Constitution (the Bill of Rights) after the Constitution was ratified.

 

The 1790s were a turbulent decade for the early American Republic. The passions that raged during the debate over the ratification of the US Constitution were channelled into increasingly partisan political debates in the years that followed. The decade also witnessed the spread of radical ideologies throughout Europe as a result of the French Revolution, a development that many in the Federalist Party thought might ultimately destabilize the United States. In this tense political environment, prominent immigrants, especially those with radical sympathies, became targets of the Federalist Press. William Cobbett, a pro-British writer and publisher, attacked Gallatin for his support of Jefferson and the Republicans, his “French” manners, and his questionable loyalty to his adopted country. Gallatin is depicted as a luxurious Frenchman (he was actually from Geneva) representing “Whiskeyland” (western Pennsylvania, where an armed rebellion against federal taxes took place in 1791). There is some controversy over the image depicted here, it either represents Albert Gallatin or, more likely, Thomas Paine in front of a Guillotine – a reminder of the fate that might befall the United States if Jefferson and the “friends of France” ever came to power.

 


The Republicans in Power

Border-line-Ohio

Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury accompanying a report Published by the order of the House of Representatives [s.n.], 21st December 1801. Bound in volume Reports of the Treasury 1801-13 – IHR

Thomas Jefferson and his supporters swept into power during the election of 1800. In 1801, Albert Gallatin was appointed the 4th Secretary of the Treasury and was responsible, in large part, for the implementation of Jefferson’s economic policies. Land and the western expansion of agriculture were key to Jefferson’s vision for the country as an agrarian republic. The sale of western lands, one of the central revenue-raising measures pursued under Jefferson’s leadership, therefore had the dual benefit of spreading republican virtue, a quality the Jeffersonians believed was rooted in land ownership while simultaneously providing the government with money. These government reports show the sale of government land in Ohio.

Act-incorporate-subscribers

An Act to Incorporate the Subscribers to the Bank of the United States Philadelphia: Printed by order of the Board of directors (William Fry, printer), 1816 [G.L.] E.816 – SHL

The establishment of the Bank of the United States became another issue over which the two main political parties of the 1790s (Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans) clashed over. The Federalists argued that the Bank was crucial to the encouragement of American industry, while the Republicans argued that it benefited rich merchants over the majority of population and that it eroded the republican virtue of the agrarian republic. In 1811 the senate allowed the charter of the first Bank of the United States to expire. While he had initially opposed the Bank while in congress, Gallatin changed his mind and became a supporter of the re-establishment of the bank in 1816.

 


The Northeast Border Dispute

Pamphlets-Maine-boundary-dispute

Maine North Eastern boundary Pamphlets vol. 1 . Bound in volume Resolutions of the legislature of the State of Maine – IHR

This 1832 map, one of five in a bound volume containing fifteen pamphlets relating to the Northeastern Boundary Dispute (1783-1842), shows three proposed borderlines between Canada and the United States. The red line represents the British/Canadian claim and the green the American position. The yellow line denotes the compromise solution recommended by the third party arbitrator in the dispute – William I, King of the Netherlands. Though rejected by the American negotiators when it was first proposed in 1831, the Dutch compromise (with a few alterations benefiting the British) was ultimately accepted by the United States in the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842. This volume was once owned by Gallatin.

This pamphlet calling for the reform of the Bank of Upper Canada was sent to Gallatin in 1830 by controversial Canadian politician, William Lyon Mackenzie (1795-1861). Mackenzie is best known as the first mayor of Toronto and for the role he played in the failed Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837-8. During the rebellion Mackenzie led an expedition of rebels to the outskirts of Toronto in 1837 and later declared himself the head of the ‘Canadian Republic’ before the rising was put down by British troops in January 1838. The inscription on this pamphlet reads, ‘To the Honourable Albert Gallatin, New York. York, Upper Canada, June 26, 1830. With W.L. Mackenzie’s Compliments’.

 

History of Scotland in the IHR Library

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– New research guide for the Scottish and Scottish Local Collections –

Frank E Jamieson, Scottish Lake Landscape in front of Mountains

Frank E Jamieson, Scottish Lake Landscape in front of Mountains

The Institute of Historical Research Library team have recently compiled a guide to the Library’s Scottish history holdings. The guide gives an overview of both the Scottish and Scottish local collections, provides details of classmarks and locations of materials, and highlights selected themes within the collections.

The Library’s Scotland holdings contain significant collections of travel diaries, private correspondence and diaries. In addition, the collection also holds a large selection of the records of Scottish government dating from the medieval period to the end of the seventeenth century alongside a collection of biographical reference works.

The collections also comprise strong holdings in Scottish local history, as well as a selected collection of journals and periodicals relating to the history of Scotland. Diaries-Image

The guide complements and refers to other collections within the Library, most notably the general British collection and the Colonial Africa and North American collections – both of which contain several items relating to the emigration and exploration of Scots around the world. The guide concludes with details of other relevant libraries and institutions with extensive holdings on the history of Scotland.

1747 La Feuille Map of Scotland

1747 La Feuille Map of Scotland

 

Overruling the duke in the IHR Library

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Dr Stuart Handley of the History of Parliament writes about an eighteenth-century pamphlet in the IHR Library. This collection of pamphlets was bound using a donation to the conservation fund.

Collection-of-papersAmong the IHR’s holdings of historical pamphlets is one from the early eighteenth century called, simply, A Collection of Papers. As the library catalogue shows, it was published in 1712 and starts by reprinting Bishop William Fleetwood’s preface to his “Four Sermons” (first published in the same year); running on from that, however, are some papers of interest to me as a historian of parliament which relate to debates of 1712 concerning the war with France. The IHR was given this copy of the pamphlet by Dr Doreen Milne, whose doctoral thesis on The Rye House Plot is in the library.

divisionDr Clyve Jones, formerly a librarian at the IHR, has already drawn attention to one of the items, a division list for a vote in the House of Lords of 28 May 1712. The matter at issue was whether to address Queen Anne with a request that she overrule the orders sent to the duke of Ormonde in Flanders not to engage with the French army. No political historian had previously realised that the pamphlet contained such important material. Clyve published the division list in his article on ‘The vote in the House of Lords on the Duke of Ormonde’s “Restraining Orders”, 28 May 1712’, in Parliamentary History, 26 (2007), pp. 160-183.

The pamphlet could not easily be made available to readers in the library as it needed conservation. I knew about it from my previous role in the IHR library, and have recently paid for the pamphlet to be conserved. It has now been placed into a secure binding and is kept in the IHR library’s special collections store. The pamphlet can also be viewed on Eighteenth Century Collections Online (ECCO), available at the IHR through JISC Historic Texts.

 

The IHR is extremely grateful to Dr Handley for his generous support of the library. If you would like to give to the library’s conservation fund, there is much material on the open shelves in need of conservation. Further information about giving to the IHR library is available at http://www.history.ac.uk/support-us/campaign/library.

Archaeology in the Collections of the IHR Library

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Following work from Daniel Cesarani during his time volunteering within the IHR Library, the Library team have recently compiled a guide to the Library’s Archaeology holdings.

Brough Castle Keep

Brough Castle Keep

The guide provides a general overview of the Library’s archaeological holdings, details where the collections can be located and documents selected topics within the collection. The themes that are highlighted include archaeological dig reports, guides to excavations and archaeological society reports and proceedings. In particular, the collection holds works detailing the archaeology of the city of London. The collection guide also provides details of the Library’s holdings on the theory of archaeology and the study of material culture more generally.

The guide complements and refers to other collections within the Library, most notably the Maps and British collections, whilst also suggesting other relevant libraries and institutions with extensive holdings on archaeology.

A Tour of the IHR Library’s North American Collections

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Last week the IHR Library welcomed a group of final year undergraduate students from Kings College London for a tour of the Library and an introduction to the collections. The students were all researching North American history, with most currently undertaking dissertation projects surrounding the American Revolution. Therefore, the North American Collections Library was booked for the group in order to allow for an extensive tour of the North American collections and a subsequent discussion of the remit and scope of the collections.

Collection Librarian Michael Townsend providing an introduction to the classmark arrangement of the North American collections

group

Following this introductory overview, each student discussed their personal research topic with relevant source materials in the IHR Library’s collections suggested by both our Collection Librarian, Michael Townsend and KCL Teaching Fellow in North American History, Dr Angel-Luke O’Donnell.

Items of interest and significance were also brought down from the IHR’s onsite store ahead of the visit in order for the students to engage fully with the collection and to allow them access to a selection of the Library’s rarer holdings.

Examples included The George Washington Atlas: a collection of eighty-five maps including twenty-eight made by George Washington, seven used and annotated by him and eight made at his direction and Exploring with Lewis and Clark: the 1804 journal of Charles Floyd. William Wirt Henry’s, Patrick Henry: life, correspondence and speeches was also made available from the Library’s Special Collections.

Tower Rock, by Karl Bodmer in Lewis and Clark’s Expedition Journal

George Washington’s sketch map of the country he traversed in 1753-4

Dr Angel-Luke O’Donnell suggesting sources in the IHR collections for students to use during their dissertation research

To round off the visit, the group were afforded the opportunity to browse the shelves and ask library staff any remaining queries. We wish all the students well with their respective research projects and hope to see them all back using the Library’s extensive North American holdings in the near future!

For more information on the Library’s North American collections please consult the collections guide for United States History in the Institute of Historical Research Library.

In addition, information on locating and researching North American resources across London is available on the dedicated North American section of the History Collections Blog.

Tours of the Library are available for groups of any size and can encompass a general introduction to the Library or focus upon a specific area of the collections to suit research interests and needs. Please contact the library with any queries or to arrange a tour:

Tel: +44 (0)20 7862 8760         Email: ihr.library@sas.ac.uk

History of Colonial Africa in the IHR Library

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Following on from the work of the Library’s previous Graduate Trainee David Phillips, we have recently been able to complete a guide to the Library’s collections on the history of colonial Africa.

Nova Africa Descriptio, 1660

The guide provides an overview of holdings, details the locations of relevant materials and identifies selected themes and strengths within the collection. The IHR holds significant materials on the early European exploration of the continent, with journals and correspondence from explorers and missionaries as well as reports from expeditions. In addition, governmental reports and colony yearbooks also form a significant strand of the Library’s holdings. The collections also include a number of maps documenting the continent and its changing territorial boundaries.

The guide is designed to help researchers new to the IHR’s collections but those already familiar with the collections may also discover something new. The guide complements and refers to other related collections within the Library, most notably the Military and International Relations collections, as well as other organisations around London with significant holdings on the history of colonial Africa.

New Exhibition in the IHR Library

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A new exhibition of the Institute of Historical Research Library’s collection of poll books has gone on display in the IHR Library. This small exhibition highlights the diverse nature of the collection with items documenting electoral registers and rolls, how constituencies polled and an example demonstrating the way in which popular songs and speeches were appropriated during election campaigns.main

The exhibition also features an exceptionally rare example of an electoral register from the county of Somerset which contains extensive marginalia, hand-written letters and notes throughout. Each voter has their place of abode, nature of their qualification to vote and their parish carefully recorded and marked by hand.

In addition, the last known poll book to be published is also displayed. Despite the introduction of the secret ballot in 1872, poll books continued to be published for the three university constituencies of London, Cambridge and Oxford. The last known published poll book, for the election held in Cambridge for the constituency of the University of Cambridge in 1882 is featured within the exhibition.

cockerel

somerset

The exhibition can be found on the first floor of the Institute of Historical Research Library, located within the Foyle Library. We hope that you enjoy the display and learn a little more about the wealth of resources that poll books have to offer historical researchers.

For more information on the Library’s collection of printed poll books please consult the blog post on the IHR’s British Poll Book Collection. The IHR Library’s website also features an exceptionally useful guide to both locating and using British Parliamentary historical sources, as well as an introductory guide to using the poll book collections.

Two New Library Collection Guides

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15th century miniature depicting the conquest of Constantinople, 1204.

15th century miniature depicting the conquest of Constantinople, 1204.

Thanks to the work of Daniel Cesarani, who recently completed a brief internship in the library, we have been able to produce guides for both the Byzantine and Crusades collection.

Each guide has a brief overview of each respective collection and then goes into further detail, highlighting some of the sub-sections within each collection, from relevant bibliographies and archive guides, through to the published primary sources to be found in the library, to the various journal titles in our possession.

Given that at times these areas of research complement each other (for example, source material on the Fourth Crusade can be found in both collections) each guide refers to the other. Additionally the guides also refer to other collections within the library such as the Church History, French and Italian collections, which may be of interest to anyone researching Byzantine or Crusader history, as well as other relevant libraries in the London area.

A Christmas Custom in the Collections of the IHR Library

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With Christmas fast approaching, the IHR Library team have been delving into the collection holdings for a suitably festive insight into the history and traditions of Christmas. Thus, we uncovered The Hooden Horse: an East Kent Christmas Tradition, written by Percy Maylam and published in 1909. The Library contains one of only 303 copies of the book to be printed and so we are delighted to share the story of a rather unusual Christmas pastime.

image1

In the text, the ‘hooden horse’ custom is described in vivid detail and worth repeating verbatim at length: “When seated round the fire, one hears the banging of gates and trampling of feet on the gravel paths outside (or, if the weather be seasonable, the more cheerful crunching of crisp snow), and the sound of loud clapping. Everyone springs up, saying, “The hoodeners have come, let us go and see the fun.” The front door is flung open, and there they all are outside, the ‘Waggoner’ cracking his whip and leading the Horse (the man who plays this part is called the ‘Hoodener’), which assumes a most restive manner, champing his teeth, and rearing and plunging, and doing his best to unseat the ‘Rider’, who tries to mount him, while the ‘Waggoner’ shouts “whoa!” and snatches at the bridle.

‘Mollie’ is there also! She is a lad dressed up in woman’s clothes and vigorously sweeps the ground behind the horse with a birch broom. There are generally two or three other performers besides, who play the concertina, tambourine or instruments of that kind. This performance goes on for some time, and such of the spectators as wish to do so, try to mount and ride the horse, but with poor success. All sorts of antics take place, Mollie has been known to stand on her head, exhibiting nothing more alarming in the way of lingerie than a pair of hobnail boots with the appropriate setting of corduroy trousers.”

mollie

“In a house which possesses a large hall, the performers are often invited inside, at times the horse uses little ceremony, and opening the door, walks in uninvited. In the bright light indoors, the performance, though the cause of much amusement, is deprived of all the illusions, the crude make-up of the horse is glaringly apparent and we recognise the performers plainly, as the Bill or Tom of everyday life, who look after the horses.” The ‘horse’ it is noted, was crudely carved from a block of wood then painted and a head fixed to the end of a ‘stout wooden staff about four feet in length.’

In addition, reception of the custom in towns across Kent is recorded within the text. Maylam remarks that in Walmer, ‘I found the practice was that the ‘gratuity’ had to be placed in the horse’s jaws, and on this particular occasion the horse put his head on the counter of the bar while the landlord’s little daughter was lifted up from the other side in order to carry out the proper form of giving the money, after conquering her fright.’

photo

Elsewhere however, he states that reception to the ‘hooden horse’ was not always friendly, even with Christmas a time of goodwill! He regales the story of how, ‘the horse gambolled into all the crowded shops, and everyone was pleased except a collie dog which worked himself into a fearful rage but feared to try his teeth against the wooden jaws of the horse.’

The earliest description of the custom appears to date to a letter to the editor of the European Magazine from May 1807, of which the IHR also has holdings. The first original description from local newspapers, however, dates from 1864 when the Thanet Advertiser printed a description of the custom among the festivities for Christmas that were held in the town that year.

The article provides a reminder that whilst some customs of Christmas, such as that of the ‘hooden horse’ may be confined to history, others still bear remarkable resonance today! The article comments that,

“The great festival of Christmas has been kept here as heretofore. On Christmas Eve we had the merry old Church bells pealing forth the glad tidings. The band enlivened the streets; hooded horses not hooded quite up to the old style, perambulated the streets, and the carol singers, some in tune and others out of tune, were very numerous.”

Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!!

Adventures of a library student

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Laura-auditingHello, my name is Laura Jäger and I am an undergraduate student from Germany, studying library science at the Technical University of Cologne. As a part of my course I was given the opportunity to do my 16 week combined internship at the IHR (Institute of Historical Research) and the BHO (British History Online). This internship has given me the incredible opportunity to work with amazing people in two quite different departments.

My special thanks has to go to Kate Wilcox (IHR) and Sarah Milligan (BHO) which gave me a very warm welcome in both the IHR and the BHO, as well as to everyone else working in both departments. Each and every one of them taught and challenged me to learn many new things in the past weeks and were always open to try new ideas, but also never got tired of providing me with their new and interesting views of things.

Throughout my time here, I have worked on different smaller and bigger projects. My main project at BHO was to construct a new annotation feature for the website, which I was allowed to manage mostly myself. It was amazing to be able to build a part for a website from scratch and to figure out in a lot of meetings how it should work and what features might be more useful for what we want to achieve or what the user will need. Another big project I have worked on included auditing work on the London and the British Local collections of the IHR. It gave me a good overview of the wide spectrum of the library. I also discovered some old books which included autographs of the author, bookplates, added pictures or newspaper articles, letters and annotations of previous owners of the book. Sadly a lot of the older books are in need of repair, which is why we set up a conservation fund where you can donate money to help preserve the extraordinary collections of the IHR.

History-of-Brasted

Book plates, letters and rubbings of previous owners, found in History of Brasted

Smaller projects included learning how to catalogue maps, books and special collection items, how to use a microfilm reader, reclassify a part of the north American collection, write a guide about the 20th century American collection for the website and to sort out and label the map drawer.

Being under the same roof with not just the IHR and BHO, but also the Victoria County History (VCH), the Bibliography of British and Irish History (BBIH) and Reviews in History made it possible, to talk with the people behind those great websites and learn more about their work and the changes they went through especially in the last few years. I was also able to visit the Senate house book repair workshop and look into how this branch of the job is evolving as it goes along and that not every book can be treated the same way.

Working at the IHR opened a lot of doors for me. I was lucky enough to visit not just the British library, but also the Wellcome library, Senate House, the Warburg Institute, the British Film Institute, one of the Idea Stores, The Guardian and the German Historical Institute. Even though all of them are considered libraries, they all have their own unique character and are fascinating to study. Some of us also went to Oxford for a day to represent the library at the Oxford Graduate Research Fair for Historians, which was a lot of fun and an amazing event to represent the library. At the end of November we had our own History day in Senate House, which gave me the opportunity to meet and talk with a lot of different librarians from all over London.

Over the last weeks I learned so much more then I had ever hoped for. A lot more than would ever fit in this blog post. A big thank you to everyone who made this amazing experience possible.

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