This article presents documents from the archive of the central committee of the Romanian Communist party, recording the January 1949 Moscow conference that established the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (C.M.E.A.). It argues that the creation of the C.M.E.A. began as a Romanian initiative and presents the process by which the document constituting the C.M.E.A. was elaborated in early 1949. There is generally very little information on the creation of the C.M.E.A., so while it was not possible to use evidence from the Moscow archives, these findings, corroborated by studies involving sources from other communist archives, will help to create a better understanding of this event.
This article argues for a revised view of the British eugenic sterilization campaign, proposing that a failure to maximize the contemporary political terrain significantly contributed to its lack of legislative success. The Eugenics Society’s unwillingness to alienate Labour or overtly to link sterilization to concerns articulated by Conservative M.P.s rendered it somewhat rudderless when, actually, it could have been attached to broader concerns (including the economic depression). While there were key elements arguing for a more aggressively pro-Tory stance, the fact that the strongest advocate of this course, George Pitt-Rivers, was so sympathetic to Nazi Germany undermined this strategy’s chances.
This article examines three ways of representing space as a commodity that played key roles in colonial Delhi: maps, lease deeds and auctions. These representations were related to the buying and selling of real estate in distinct ways. At the same time, they also referred to and relied on each other to give effect to their pronouncements. Two elements can be traced running through these disparate representations: connections between space and time, and the imbrication of state and property market. This article argues that the ability to utilize these elements in order to develop narratives about urban space was a critical constituent of state power
This article explores how the Boy Scout movement moved from an inward looking and decidedly militaristic programme to one which embraced liberal internationalism following the First World War. It argues that the Boy Scouts’ wholehearted embrace of internationalism was not inevitable; in fact it was a complex and inconsistent transition, and the result of unintentional circumstances. Furthermore, internationalism did not replace but merely supplemented the movement’s older aims of organizational autonomy and the promotion of empire. During the inter-war period, these competing motives informed and strained the Boy Scouts’ interactions with the public and with other internationalist organizations such as the League of Nations and the League of Nations Union
Famine is not the problem: a historical perspective by Cormac Ó Gráda
Thanks to the globalization of relief and increasing global food output, the famines of the twenty-first century (so far), Somalia (civil war) and North Korea (autarky) apart, have been small. Today malnutrition is a much more intractable and pressing problem than famine, even though the proportion of the world’s poor that is malnourished has been declining. Moreover, although the prospects for avoiding famines in peacetime in the short run are good, global warming looms in the medium term. These contrasting signals are not lost on international non-governmental organizations.
Two oaths of the community in 1258 by Joshua Hey
This article looks at two ‘oaths of the community’ of 1258. First, it shows that the oath of the community at Oxford has been widely misinterpreted by historians: it was an oath of mutual aid, not an oath binding the community to reform. Second, it looks at the order for all in the realm to take an oath in October 1258, which has never been fully examined before. This order aimed to bind the entire realm to the reform movement – it was proclaimed in Latin, French and English – yet no chroniclers mentioned it and no mechanism was provided for its enactment.
Episcopal emotions: tears in the life of the medieval bishop by Katherine Harvey
This article explores the significance of weeping in the lives of late medieval English bishops (c.1100−c.1400). It considers the lachrymose devotions of saintly bishops alongside tears of grief, friendship and self-pity, and asks how such displays of emotion were understood by contemporary onlookers. It is argued that a bishop’s tears were key to perceptions of his masculinity, sexuality and physical body, which in turn had significant implications for his reputation both as a prelate and as a potential saint.
Utilizing archival material and analysing Read’s poetry, prose and polemical writing, this article argues that Read’s perception of the war was deeply ambiguous, and shifted in response to the changing view of the conflict in British cultural history. He saw the war as at once disabling and liberating, and his continual return to the conflict as a subject in his writing was a process of attempting to fix its ultimate meaning to his life.
Black people and the criminal justice system: prejudice and practice in later 18th- and early 19th-century London by Peter King and John Carter Wood
This article explores how attitudes to black people were translated into practice by examining how the latter fared as victims, witnesses and especially as the accused when they came to the Old Bailey in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
This article examines the part played by key baronial wives of the Welsh Marches in the defeat of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd in 1282. It explores the hidden involvement of women in the conquest of Wales and considers the opportunities available to noblewomen, particularly non-widows, in the Welsh Marches and beyond.
Provincial news networks in late Elizabethan Devon by Ian Cooper
The new virtual issue of Historical Research (Spring 2014) draws together past and present articles and podcasts on the theme of Charity and Philanthropy.
The Medieval Leper-house at ‘Lamford’, Cornwall. Nicholas Orme and Oliver Padel
Female Philanthropy and Domestic Service in Victorian England. F. K. Prochaska
Eggs, rags and whist drives: popular munificence and the development of provincial medical voluntarism between the wars. Nick Hayes and Barry M. Doyle
Voluntarism and democracy in Britain since the 1790s. Brian Harrison
Various early view articles now available from Historical Research, including ‘For the freedom of captive European nations’: east European exiles in the Cold War by Martin Nekola. This article looks at the activities of political exiles from the countries of east-central and south-east Europe in the West, particularly in the U.S.A., during the Cold War. It discusses the formation of political organizations for a number of individual national exile groups, and explains that their role and standing were essentially derived from changes in international politics. The characteristic view of these anti-communist groups includes internal crises and conflicts, which were often rooted in petty quarrels, personal animosity, arguments about the legitimacy of leading bodies, an absence of charismatic leadership, and the predominance of propaganda in their work.
Also just out:
The new issue of Historical Research is now available, and among the articles is ‘Rank-and-file movements and political change before the Great War: the Durham miners’ “Forward Movement”‘ by Lewis Mates, which examines political change in the Durham Miners’ Association (D.M.A.), one of the best-established, largest and most influential Edwardian trade unions.
Other content includes:
The hue and cry in medieval English towns by Samantha Sagui
The impact of land accumulation and consolidation on population trends in the pre-industrial period: two contrasting cases in the Low Countries by D. R. Curtis
Kinship and diplomacy in sixteenth-century Scotland: the earl of Northumberland’s Scottish captivity in its domestic and international context, 1569–72 by Amy Blakeway
Thinking outside the gundeck: maritime history, the royal navy and the outbreak of British civil war, 1625–42 (pages 251–274) by Richard J. Blakemore
The dominion of history: the export of historical research from Britain since 1850 by Miles Taylor
From anti-colonialism to anti-imperialism: the evolution of H. M. Hyndman’s critique of empire, c.1875–1905 by Marcus Morris
The myth of sovereignty: British immigration control in policy and practice in the nineteen-seventies by Evan Smith and Marinella Marmo